Propionibacterium freudenreichii – NBRC 12424

Propionibacterium freudenreichii, chung vi sinh, chung chuan ATCC

Propionibacterium freudenreichii

NBRC No. NBRC 12424
Scientific Name of this Strain Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp.freudenreichii (van Niel 1928) Moore and Holdeman 1970
Synonymous Name
Synonym: Propionibacterium freudenreichii
Type Strain type
Accepted Date 1966/05/24
Isolated Year
Deposited Year
History IFO 12424 <- ATCC 6207 <- USDA (R.P. Tittsler)
Other Culture Collection No. ATCC 6207=CCUG 7433=CIP 103026=DSM 20271=HAMBI 274=LMG 16412=NCTC 10470=NRRL B-3523
Other No.
Rehydration Fluid 702
Medium 804
Cultivation Temp. 30 C
Oxygen Relationship
Source of Isolation
Locality of Source
Country of Origin
Biosafety Level
Applications Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamine);production
Mating Type
Genetic Marker
Plant Quarantine No.
Animal Quarantine No.
Herbarium No.
Comment Genome Information: PRJDB365 (NCBI BioProject).
Sequences 16S rDNA
Shipping as Glass ampoule (L-dried)

Propionibacterium freudenreichii is a Gram-positive, non-motile bacterium that plays an important role in the creation of Emmental cheese, and to some extent, Jarlsberg cheese, Leerdammer and Maasdam cheese. Its concentration in Swiss-type cheeses is higher than in any other cheese.

Propionibacteria are commonly found in milk and dairy products, though they have also been extracted from soil. P. freudenreichii has a circular chromosome about 2.5 Mb long. When Emmental cheese is being produced, P. freudenreichii ferments lactate to form acetate, propionate, and carbon dioxide (3 C3H6O3 → 2 C2H5CO2 + C2H3O2 + CO2).

The products of this fermentation contribute to the nutty and sweet flavors of the cheese, and the carbon dioxide byproduct is responsible for forming the holes, or “eyes” in the cheese. Cheesemakers control the size of the holes by changing the acidity, temperature, and curing time of the mixture. An estimated one billion living cells of P. freudenreichii are present in one gram of Emmental.

In contrast to most lactic acid bacteria, this bacterium mainly breaks down lipids, forming free fatty acids. Recent research has focused on possible benefits incurred from consuming P. freudenreichii, which are thought to cleanse the gastrointestinal tract. P. freudenreichii has also been suggested to possibly lower the incidence of colon cancer. This mutualistic relationship is unusual in propionibacteria, which are largely commensal. The performance and growth of P. freudenreichii is highly dependent on the presence of Lactobacillus helveticus, which provides essential amino acids. The degradation of L. helvecticus releases a variety of amino acids and peptides. While P. freudenreichii has been found to grow even in the absence of L. helvecticus, some strains of the bacteria were observed lysing in the absence of glutamine, lysine, or tyrosine. The autolysis of P. freudenreichii has been suggested to contribute further to the flavor of the Emmental cheese. The conditions leading to the autolysis of this bacterium are not well known.

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