|NBRC No.||NBRC 102203|
|Scientific Name of this Strain||Escherichia coli (Migula 1895) Castellani and Chalmers 1919|
|History||IAM 12119 <- ATCC 11775 <- NCTC 9001 <- F. Kauffmann, U5/41|
|Other Culture Collection No.||ATCC 11775=CCUG 24=CIP 54.8=DSM 30083=JCM 1649=LMG 2092=IAM 12119=CCUG 29300=NCCB 54008=NCTC 9001=BCRC 10675=CCM 5172=CECT 515=KCTC 2441=NCDO 1989=NCIMB 11943=VTT E-94564|
|Cultivation Temp.||37 C|
|Source of Isolation||Urine|
|Locality of Source|
|Country of Origin|
|Plant Quarantine No.|
|Animal Quarantine No.|
Escherichia coli (commonly abbreviated E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms). Most E. coli strains are harmless, but some serotypes can cause serious food poisoning in their hosts, and are occasionally responsible for product recalls due to food contamination. The harmless strains are part of the normal flora of the gut, and can benefit their hosts by producing vitamin K2, and preventing colonization of the intestine with pathogenic bacteria.
E. coli and other facultative anaerobes constitute about 0.1% of gut flora, and fecal–oral transmission is the major route through which pathogenic strains of the bacterium cause disease. Cells are able to survive outside the body for a limited amount of time, which makes them potential indicator organisms to test environmental samples for fecal contamination. A growing body of research, though, has examined environmentally persistent E. coli which can survive for extended periods outside of a host.
The bacterium can be grown and cultured easily and inexpensively in a laboratory setting, and has been intensively investigated for over 60 years. E. coli is the most widely studied prokaryotic model organism, and an important species in the fields of biotechnology and microbiology, where it has served as the host organism for the majority of work with recombinant DNA. Under favourable conditions, it takes only 20 minutes to reproduce.